"An assemly of albanian, montenegrin and bosnian chiefs is held in Podgorica. They decide to unite against Turks in a league called "Illyrian Confederacy" with Karamahmud Bushati Pasha as a president." (Bushati being the moslem pasha of the northern city of Shkodra).
Painting of Bushati
"First siege of of Karamahmud in the Rozafat citadel" (Shkodra).
"Second siege of Karamahmud in the Rozafat citadel"
"Death of Ali Pasha of Iannina in revolt against Turks"
Painting of Ali Pasha
"Important anti-turk revolts in Albania."
"Anti-turk revolt in Shkodra led by Hamza Kazazi"
"Albanian rebels fight turkish forces in Berat"
"An anti-turk revolt breaks out in Prizren"
"An anti-turk revolt breaks out in the plateau of Dukagjin, Kosovo and Pollog."
"An anti-turk revolt starts in Kurvelesh (North Epirus ) led by Zenel Gjoleka and Rrapo Hekali"
Drawing of Hekali
"Anti-turk revolts break out in Peja, Gjakova, Prizren, Shkodra, Tirana and Mati."
"1878: The Russo-Turkish treaty of San Stefano gives certain albanian lands to Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro. Violent expulsion of albanians starts. A national assembly called League of Prizren is formed. 1880: Albanians beat Montenegrins in the battles of Velika, Pepaj and Rrzhanica. The assembly of Argurokastro announces that it will fight in favour of an autonomous Albania. 1881: Reformation of the league and creation of a temporary government led by Ymer Prizreni. The forces of the albanians liberate some Kosovo and Macedonian towns but are pushed back and crushed by the turks."
Beteja e Bardhetit
Piktura te tjera
Piktura Lidhja e Prizrenit
"Anti-turkish revolt in Shkodra."
London Independent News drawing 1883 Rebellion
"Anti-turk revolt in Kosovo led by Sulejman Vokshi."
"Anti-turk revolt in Peja(Kosovo) led by Haxhi Zeka."
"The albanian league of Peja is formed led by Haxhi Zeka. Publication of a national program publicized by Sami Frasheri"
"Anti-turk revolt in Mirdita"
"Patriot bands start to form under the direction of the committee of Monastiri."
"Young Turk revolution. Albanians help YoungTurks because they advocated extensive autonomy and liberties for Ottoman subjects."
"Albanian anti-Young Turk revolution. Young Turks do not fulfill their promises of extensive autonomy for albanians. Battle of Kacanik(Kosovo), where Albanian rebels are led by Idriz Seferi. Battle of Shtimje (Kosovo?) where Albanian rebels are led by Isa Boletini and Hasan Budakova. Revolt also above Shkodra(Albania) led by Ded John Luli.
Isa Boletini with compatriots in Vlora (closest to viewer)
Ded John Luli and his son Kola
Liberation of Decic (Montenegro)
Rebel leaders (North Albania)
Rebels in Shkup(FYROM)
Rebels kept Ferizaj sorrounded (August 1912)
Rebels in Aulona 1912(South Albania)
Revolts in favour of independence in Albania. Balkan war starts. The national assembly of Aulona declares independence.
The US Congress country study on Albania:
The Albanians had assisted the Young Turks of the Ottoman Empire because of a promise that Albania would have autonomy and relief from repressive Turkish taxation. However, once in power, the Young Turks reneged and, instead levied new taxes, outlawed guerrilla groups and nationalist societies, and attempted to extend Constantinople's control over the northern Albanian mountain men. About 8000 Albanians in Kosovo and the northern mountains rebelled in March (or early April) 1910. The uprising soon spread to Korēė to the southeast and into western Macedonia. The Albanian leaders met in Montenegro, adopted a memorandum demanding self-government for Albania, and sent it to the Turkish government, which rejected it. A large Turkish army brutally crushed the uprising in June 1910. Albanian organizations were outlawed, entire regions were disarmed, and Albanian schools and publications were closed down.
Montenegro, preparing to grab Albanian-populated lands for itself, supported a 1911 uprising by the mountain tribes against the Young Turks regime that grew into a widespread revolt. Unable to control the Albanians by force, the Ottoman government granted concessions on schools, military recruitment, and taxation and sanctioned the use of the Latin script for the Albanian language. The government refused, however, to unite the four Albanian-inhabited vilayets (provinces).
Encyclopedia Britannica Quote:
When the Young Turks, who seized power in Istanbul in 1908, ignored their commitments to Albanians to institute democratic reforms and to grant autonomy, Albanians embarked on an armed struggle, which, at the end of three years (191012), forced the Turks to agree, in effect, to grant their demands. Alarmed at the prospect of Albanian autonomy, Albania's Balkan neighbours, who had already made plans to partition the region, declared war on Turkey in October 1912, and Greek, Serbian, and Montenegrin armies advanced into Albanian territories.
To cite this page:
"Albania." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopędia Britannica Premium Service. 4 Sept. 2005 www.britannica.com/ebc/article-42649